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 Prof Karl Joreskog at the 1998 Dallas workshop

Analysis of Ordinal Variables Part 4: Multiple Groups


Karl G. Joreskog

February 5, 2002

Because of the mathematical content and length of this contribution to Karl's Corner, we are only making it available as a PDF file. It can be printed using Adobe's Acrobat Reader (version 4 and higher).

The zip file contains both the PDF file and examples (input files and datasets).

The contents of this column are briefly described below.

This Note considers the situation where data on the same ordinal variables have been collected in several groups.

The objective is to compare different characteristics across groups. In particular, the procedure can be used for testing factorial invariance and for estimating differences in factor means.

The analysis is carried out on the efficacy variables in the Political Action Survey administered in eight countries (see Note 1). The procedure makes it possible to answer questions like these:

  • Do the efficacy items measure the same latent variables in all countries?
  • If so, are the factor loadings invariant over countries?
  • Are the intercepts invariant over countries?
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